The other difficulty is when there is no author mentioned, and the source was written by an organization. In this case, you use the name of the organization or a recognized abbreviation. The exact abbreviation does not matter too much, as long as it is clear in the bibliography. The same is true of many electronic sources, although be careful that any non-attributed source is reliable.
For multiple authors, it is usual to mention them all the first time, but to use 'et al. If there are six or more authors, you can use the abbreviation straightaway. Occasionally, you may have to use a source that has been referenced in another source. If you can, try to find the original source and use that. If you cannot obtain this source, then you need to use a two-stage referencing system. Sorgheloos, , as cited in Sargeant, This makes it clear that you could not access the original work, and that you correctly attribute the original findings to the researcher who actually performed the initial research.
A few standards, such as Chicago style and the Council of Biology Editors BCE use a footnote numbering system, where a number is used and cross-referenced with the endnote section and bibliography:. Although most word processors provide an automatic system of doing this, the added complexity, and the way that it makes the paper unwieldy for the reader, means that it is falling out of fashion. It is always best to over cite, and avoid accusations of plagiarism , but there are a few times that citation is not necessary.
General knowledge, such as 'Crick and Watson discovered the structure of DNA,' will not need referencing. Common knowledge in the field is generally fine, too, although you should err on the side of caution. If you use class notes, some lecturers are not too worried about citations, although it is usually good practice to find a source saying the same information, from a textbook or journal.
Check out our quiz-page with tests about:. Martyn Shuttleworth Oct 15, Retrieved Sep 10, from Explorable. The text in this article is licensed under the Creative Commons-License Attribution 4. You can use it freely with some kind of link , and we're also okay with people reprinting in publications like books, blogs, newsletters, course-material, papers, wikipedia and presentations with clear attribution.
Learn how to construct, style and format an Academic paper and take your skills to the next level. Don't have time for it all now? No problem, save it as a course and come back to it later. Martyn Shuttleworth K reads. Share this page on your website: This article is a part of the guide: Select from one of the other courses available: Don't miss these related articles:. This area includes material on quoting and paraphrasing your research sources, as well as material on how to avoid plagiarism.
This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster.
This section contains resources on in-text citation and the Works Cited page, as well as MLA sample papers, slide presentations, and the MLA classroom poster. This section contains information on the Chicago Manual of Style method of document formatting and citation. These resources follow the 17th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style, which was issued in Purdue Online Writing Lab.
Common Words that Sound Alike Numbers: Text Elements Visual Rhetoric: Process and Materials Overview: An Introduction Researching Programs: Practical Considerations Researching Programs: Drafting Your Statement Statements of Purpose: The Basics In-Text Citations: Basic Rules Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List:
Research and Citation Resources. This section contains resources on in-text citation and the References page, as well as APA sample papers, slide presentations, and the APA classroom poster. MLA Style. These OWL resources will help you learn how to use the Modern Language Association (MLA) citation and format style. This section .
A research paper does not normally need a title page, but if the paper is a group project, create a title page and list all the authors on it instead of in the header on page 1 of your essay. If your teacher requires a title page in lieu of or in addition to the header, format it according to the instructions you are given.
Writing a paper, especially a research paper, requires you to cite your source for any information or thoughts that are not your own. If you . When writing a research paper, in text citation is essential to use to accredit other researchers.
Your APA-style research paper should have the following components. 1. APA-style title page. 2. Abstract. 3. The paper with correct margins, in-text citations, etc. Paper Formatting Toggle Dropdown. Title Page Main Body References AMA Manual of Style; AMA Format Download the PDF Guide to AMA Formatting. Sample AMA paper Subjects: Class research guide.