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Do you offer refunds? These Northern black communities, and the politicians that they elected, helped Southern blacks struggling against segregation by using political influence and money. The Great Depression of the s increased black protests against discrimination, especially in Northern cities. Blacks protested the refusal of white-owned businesses in all-black neighborhoods to hire black salespersons.
During the same years, blacks organized school boycotts in Northern cities to protest discriminatory treatment of black children. The black protest activities of the s were encouraged by the expanding role of government in the economy and society. During the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt the federal government created federal programs, such as Social Security, to assure the welfare of individual citizens. Roosevelt himself was not an outspoken supporter of black rights, but his wife Eleanor became an open advocate for fairness to blacks, as did other leaders in the administration.
The Roosevelt Administration opened federal jobs to blacks and turned the federal judiciary away from its preoccupation with protecting the freedom of business corporations and toward the protection of individual rights, especially those of the poor and minority groups. Beginning with his appointment of Hugo Black to the U. Supreme Court in , Roosevelt chose judges who favored black rights. As early as , the courts displayed a new attitude toward black rights; that year the Supreme Court ruled that the state of Missouri was obligated to provide access to a public law school for blacks just as it provided for whites-a new emphasis on the equal part of the Plessy doctrine.
Blacks sensed that the national government might again be their ally, as it had been during the Civil War. Black newspaper editors insisted during and that black support for this war effort would depend on fair treatment. They demanded that black soldiers be trained in all military roles and that black civilians have equal opportunities to work in war industries at home. Philip Randolph, head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, a union whose members were mainly black railroad workers, planned a March on Washington to demand that the federal government require defense contractors to hire blacks on an equal basis with whites.
The FEPC did not prevent discrimination in war industries, but it did provide a lesson to blacks about how the threat of protest could result in new federal commitments to civil rights. Although a disproportionately high number of blacks were put in noncombat, support positions in the military, many did fight. The Army Air Corps trained blacks as pilots in a controversial segregated arrangement in Tuskegee, Alabama.
During the war, all the armed services moved toward equal treatment of blacks, though none flatly rejected segregation. In the early war years, hundreds of thousands of blacks left Southern farms for war jobs in Northern and Western cities. Although there was racial tension and conflict in their new homes, blacks were free of the worst racial oppression, and they enjoyed much larger incomes. After the war blacks in the North and West used their economic and political influence to support civil rights for Southern blacks.
Blacks continued to work against discrimination during the war, challenging voting registrars in Southern courthouses and suing school boards for equal educational provisions. Allwright, which outlawed the white primary. During the war, black newspapers campaigned for a Double V, victories over both fascism in Europe and racism at home. The war experience gave about one million blacks the opportunity to fight racism in Europe and Asia, a fact that black veterans would remember during the struggle against racism at home after the war.
Perhaps just as important, almost ten times that many white Americans witnessed the patriotic service of black Americans. Many of them would object to the continued denial of civil rights to the men and women beside whom they had fought. After World War II the momentum for racial change continued. Black soldiers returned home with determination to have full civil rights.
President Harry Truman ordered the final desegregation of the armed forces in He also committed to a domestic civil rights policy favoring voting rights and equal employment, but the U. Congress rejected his proposals. For example, in Sweat v. Painter , the Supreme Court decided that the University of Texas had to integrate its law school.
Marshall and the Defense Fund worked with Southern plaintiffs to challenge the Plessy doctrine directly, arguing in effect that separate was inherently unequal. Supreme Court heard arguments on five cases that challenged elementary- and secondary-school segregation, and in May issued its landmark ruling in Brown v. Board of Education that stated that racially segregated education was unconstitutional.
White Southerners received the Brown decision first with shock and, in some instances, with expressions of goodwill. By , however, white opposition in the South had grown into massive resistance, a strategy to persuade all whites to resist compliance with the desegregation orders.
It was believed that if enough people refused to cooperate with the federal court order, it could not be enforced. Tactics included firing school employees who showed willingness to seek integration, closing public schools rather than desegregating, and boycotting all public education that was integrated.
The White Citizens Council was formed and led opposition to school desegregation all over the South. The Citizens Council called for economic coercion of blacks who favored integrated schools, such as firing them from jobs, and the creation of private, all-white schools. Virtually no schools in the South were desegregated in the first years after the Brown decision.
In Virginia one county did indeed close its public schools. The event was covered by the national media, and the fate of the Little Rock Nine, the students attempting to integrate the school, dramatized the seriousness of the school desegregation issue to many Americans. Although not all school desegregation was as dramatic as in Little Rock, the desegregation process did proceed-gradually. Frequently schools were desegregated only in theory, because racially segregated neighborhoods led to segregated schools.
To overcome this problem, some school districts in the s tried busing students to schools outside of their neighborhoods. The KKK used violence or threats against anyone who was suspected of favoring desegregation or black civil rights. Klan terror, including intimidation and murder, was widespread in the South in the s and s, though Klan activities were not always reported in the media. One terrorist act that did receive national attention was the murder of Emmett Till, a year-old black boy slain in Mississippi by whites who believed he had flirted with a white woman.
Despite the threats and violence, the struggle quickly moved beyond school desegregation to challenge segregation in other areas. When Parks refused to move, she was arrested. Nixon, recognized that the arrest of Parks might rally local blacks to protest segregated buses. Race and the Image of American Democracy , Barbara Sargent married to the pastor of the American Church in Paris describes a civil rights meeting that took place in a Paris night club called the Living Room with about people attending:.
The pianist…Art Simmons spoke movingly of being forced every night to explain to foreigners something about America which he could not really explain to himself. Americans abroad, as well as foreigners, could see the problems rife within America, thus even jazz musicians began working on plans in an attempt to stop the insistence that people of color were second-class citizens devoid of rights. However, this further complicated and divided things in America. It was also a real danger to speak of any causes that seemed too left, for fear of being harangued and locked away by the McCarthy era goon squad.
The Civil Rights Movement was swallowed up in all the hubbub. Even before this, the inequalities in the U. President Truman often said civil rights were needed to keep smooth relations with foreign nations.
Even Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, remarked:. This is notable because Acheson was not an outspoken advocate for racial equality. A famous example of this is when the Ambassador to Chad was refused service in Maryland on his way to meet President Kennedy because, according to the waitress:.
The fights were fought and won on many fronts, with more foreign allies that one might initially have thought. Many history research papers recount the Civil Rights movement not only as a change to American history but a catalyst for world-wide change. This blog post is provided free of charge and we encourage you to use it for your research and writing.
The Civil Rights Movement - The civil right movement refers to the reform movement in the United States beginning in the to led primarily by Blacks for outlawing racial discrimination against African-Americans to prove the civil rights .
The Civil Rights Movement Essay - Historically, the Civil Rights Movement was a time during the ’s and 60’s to eliminate segregation and gain equal rights.
The ultimate goal of the civil rights movement was to end racial segregation and discrimination against blacks in the United States. What made this movement so successful were the organization and the participation that it . Free essay on Civil Rights Movement available totally free at freebtcoincoin.tk, the largest free essay community.
Civil Rights Movement in the United States, political, legal, and social struggle by black Americans to gain full citizenship rights and to achieve racial equality. The civil rights movement was first and foremost a challenge to segregation, the system of laws and customs separating blacks and. Civil Rights Movement. Custom Civil Rights Movement Essay Writing Service || Civil Rights Movement Essay samples, help. The civil rights movement was a movement in the United States in the s to the s and mainly led by Blacks in an effort to establish gender and racial equality for all the African Americans.