Debating the Ethics of Stem Cell Research. In human years, Dolly was only about years old and had been suffering from arthritis for many years. This outcome is consistent with the claims of some scientists that current cloning technology does not accurately replicate natural sexual reproduction and disproportionately generates debilitating and sometimes lethal genetic defects.
Dolly was the product of somatic cell nuclear transfer SCNT , which involved removing the DNA from a sheep somatic adult cell, inserting it into an egg, and then transferring the egg to a receptive womb. This technology is very similar to what is currently being developed by stem…… [Read More]. Carer and Donation Mean in. His most famous work is his Utopia, a book in which he created his version of a perfect society and gave his name to such conceptions ever after as "utopias.
The order and dignity of the state in this book contrasted sharply with the reality of statecraft in Christian Europe at the time, a region divided by self-interest and greed for power and riches. The book was also an expression of More's form of Humanism Maynard The term can also have broader application as a reference to any plans of government or schemes for social improvement which present the possibilities of a good society.
Therapeutic Use of Embryonic Stem Cells in Humans Moral issues relating to the therapeutic use of embrionic stem cells in humans Moral issues relating to the therapeutic use of embryonic stem cells in humans The inception of the idea of research of stem cells became plausible in several decades, in the past. Additionally, the research caused an ensuing countless debates to accompany the issue. In considering the research on the stem cell, several issues accompany the debate.
These issues are either ethical, which are about the potential moral effects the stem cells may bring. The second issue is of the legal aspect, which consider the regulation of the stem cell technologies by the government and the policy makers in the helping the public Ostnor, The last issues are social in nature, influencing and involving the society as a whole. Human embryonic stem cells are the current subject of heavy…… [Read More]. Unethical Experimentation Issues and Concerns.
Freyhofer Globalizing clinical research has reportedly proven to be one solution for America's pharmaceutical paradox. Doctors prescribe more than 10 prescriptions for the average American each year. Only one person in , however, will submit themselves to be a participant in experimental drug testing.
On the other side of the globe, however a profusion of under-treated, poor, physician-trusting patients who live in Latin America, Eastern Europe, and Southeast Asia provide the rapid, positive results needed for new drugs to receive quick approval. Shah 23 In Nigeria during , thirty Nigerian families filed a class-action suit against Pfizer, who allegedly violated the Nuremberg Code in as they presided over an experiment on Nigerian children suffering with meningitis.
Researchers reportedly forced a risky, unapproved, experiment on unsuspecting subjects who, as a…… [Read More]. Tiffany Rudolph The Wisdom of. For example, is the prospect of human cloning equal in repugnant value to "eating human flesh," as he suggests? Another word he uses often is "horror. The horror of any of those acts can be linked to the horror of human cloning, according to Kass. After spending the first few pages of his essay pointing to his contempt for the prospect of human cloning, on page Kass flatly states that the process of setting up human cloning is already well underway.
Making human children "artifacts" rather than loveable, playful little girls and boys, to serve human purposes, is a "violation of human equality, freedom and dignity" he insists,…… [Read More]. Patenting Living Things and What. A "New York Times" reporter notes, "But unlike some other patents on animal cloning, this one does not specifically exclude human from the definition of mammals; indeed, it specifically mentions the use of human eggs" Pollack.
Another writer notes that there are virtually no limits on what a patent can be issued for, and so, the patent office can potentially issue patents on any number of controversial or ethical procedures and creations. He writes, "Under this approach, the U. Clearly, this policy can lead to muddy waters and questions of morality in the future. Most people agree that human cloning should not occur for any number of reasons, including the ability to create humans and even "perfect" humans to serve as workers or in effect "slaves.
Right to Live and Die Ethics and Morality. The American Medical Association AMA defines cloning as the "production of genetically-identical organisms via somatic cell nuclear transfer" Fornsworth, Despite its inherent benefits, which include helping sterile couples get an offspring complete with either the father's or the mother's genetic make-up, and creating humans who can readily be organ donors for each other; cloning…… [Read More]. Skill Building The course work has immensely improved my reading, writing, and thinking skills.
Prior to reading the course materials, there were established beliefs on certain issues and interest in me. For example, the issue of racism and health care was a matter that had always caught my attention, because of my Hispanic heritage. Racism was a topic of concern and interest, but I was never a victim of any form of racism.
Therefore, from the beginning, I was not in a position to fathom the ordeal and experiences minorities go through because of racism.
It is through reading, writing and analytical thinking of articles that I appreciated this social dynamic. It has always been difficult for me to explain and imagine that I could be a victim of racism.
After this course, I am able to use my reading skills that have improved and increased my reading speed and…… [Read More]. Human Stem Cell Medical -. This bill was sent to the U.
Senate and set for vote mirroring a bill previously passed by the House during the Summer of which failed to pass the Senate because of vehement disagreement that was even "within the parties over the prohibition of therapeutic cloning.
Ibid; paraphrased Patenting laws for genetics allow inventors to patent genetics but only specific genetic factors may be patented and inventors are required to: Cloned Livestock Produce in EU. In his article, Derek Burke posits that "consumers' biggest concern is about risk, especially in light of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy epidemic: This distrust in the system, both on a scientific and governmental level, is deep-rooted, in that food is part of the human experience which is personal and even intimate.
People want to be able to trust their food providers. Therefore there is fear that just because cloned beef appears as edible as non-cloned beef does not guarantee that an animal with defects harmful for human consumption might be cloned and that clone cloned, and so on , unleashing greater harm over a wider array of people than even the BSE or Foot and Mouth epidemics impacted.
The arguments against cloning have a lot to do with our collective fear not of the meat itself, but also the implications of…… [Read More]. The organism could be an animal, plant, or microorganism. The changing of the genetic code could involve subtracting, adding, or altering. All these changes could be from the same species or different species, which would give the organism characteristics that it does not have normally.
GMO technology is widely used for scientific research and in the production of foods and goods. A GMO results from the laboratory process of extracting genes from the DNA of a species and forcing the genes into an unrelated plant or animal's genes.
The foreign genes come from viruses, bacteria, animals, insects, or even humans. GMOs allow for the production of organisms with desired biological traits or favor the expression of some desired traits. Conventional crop farming, livestock…… [Read More].
Genetic Engineering for the Perfect Child. Genetic Engineering The alteration of the genetic structure of any organism is done by means of Genetic engineering that provides characters beneficial or pleasing to the individual performing the alternation.
For instance, the most greatly well-known example of genetic engineering is the sheep Dolly that was cloned in the year Here, in order to create Dolly, the scientists took out cells from the udder of a pregnant, six-year-old ewe and then these cells were put into not related host eggs that had their DNA separated.
Thus, as an alternate of creating one fertilized egg, a reproduction or a duplicate of an adult animal was made Sarah. Dolly; being a living proof where a fertilized egg is divided few times and later the cells of individual are removed from an embryo. Thus, this sheep…… [Read More]. Cogito Ergo Sum as Stated. As such, every human being has 70, pairs of these genes or instructions that tell the body what to be and how to behave. They have garnered the name "designer" not so much as to pre-selection but more toward blueprint.
Although biotechnological development might well be able to "design" a fetus to have all the characteristics that parents want in a child, the more scientific approach is one of natural development in the genes patterning. Not with standing naturalism there are efforts underway to alter some of the 70, pairs of genes to cure diseases and prevent defective inherited characteristics.
Wherein the debate turns philosophical, ethical, and righteous is on an entire different level however. When reality is present that babies can be genetically engineered to be smarter, better looking, more athletic, and happier the face of human evolution will have changed forever. The lingering question facing citizenry is how…… [Read More]. Adrenal Gland Keeping the Body. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine Connor An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants.
Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. But current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders.
The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person Connor. Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system Travis Two new studies bolstered this…… [Read More].
Assurance and Security IAS Digital forensics DF In this work, we take a look at three laboratory-based training structures that afford practical and basic knowledge needed for forensic evaluation making use of the latest digital devices, software, hardware and firmware. Each lesson has three parts. The duration of the first section of the three labs will be one month. These labs would be the largest labs. The Second section would consist of smaller labs. The training period duration in these labs would also generally be one month.
The third section would consist of smallest labs. The duration of training period in these labs would be one week. The training will be provided in the field of software, programming concepts, flowcharting and algorithms and logical reasoning- both linear and iterative.
Part 1 Larger Labs: In collaboration with University of Wisconsin physician-scientists, Thomson has subsequently demonstrated the developmental potential of human embryonic stem cells in lineage-specific differentiation, such as blood, trophoblast, neural tissue and heart James. Currently his focus is directed on understanding how embryonic stem cells can "form any cell in the body, how an ES cell chooses between self-renewal and the initial decision to differentiate, and how a differentiated cell with limited developmental potential can be reprogrammed to a pluripotent cell" James.
Also of concern are issues of privacy and confidentiality. A woman donating her embryo or fetus to research may fear that the DNA that could exist indefinitely in these sources might one day be traced back to her, thereby revealing her identity and her association with the fertility clinic Young. For example, if the fetus is obtained via an abortion, whether it can be genetically traced back to the donor plays…… [Read More].
Hospital Ethics to Do or. The clinical trial team includes doctors, nurses, social workers, data entry technicians and other health care professionals NWHRC They review a participant's health history and current medical intakes before the trial begins. They impart adequate information and instructions about the clinical trial, monitor each participant in the conduct of the trial and may contact the participant after the conduct of the trial.
Clinical trials or researches may also be open-label, placebo-controlled, double-blinded or randomized. They consist of four phases. These included drugs for HIV, cancer, heart attack and Alzheimer's disease. As of , Medicare covers many of the costs involved in…… [Read More]. A Question of Ethical and Spiritual Morality In vitro fertilization is a common reproductive procedure that generally falls under the scope of biotechnology.
It is a process that is condemned by the Catholic church and often criticized by lawyers and ethicist despite the number of live births that result from the procedure Despite this condemnation, there are hundreds of thousands of individuals that partake in IVF procedures every year, in the hope of bringing 'new life' into the world.
Even members of spiritual communities have gone against tradition and the recommendation of church elders to participate in IVF. The increase in use and potential for abuse is alarming. I will argue in this paper that in vitro fertilization is morally wrong because it results in the meaningless reproduction and may potentially result in the misuse or abuse of life and even death. I will support this thesis…… [Read More].
Stem Cell Research and Nursing. This often means expanding the role of the nurse in the modern medical environment. One of the most important signs of the way that nursing has changed to deal with the problems and possibilities of cloning and stem cell research is that nurses have become more "genetically aware.
Now that sequencing the human genome is completed, nurses are challenged with applying this genetic information to nursing practice. Nursing has moved from the "old genetics" to the "new genetics," with the recognition that common diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from complex interactions between genetic factors and a variety of environmental exposures that trigger, accelerate, or exacerbate the disease process.
Stem Cell Research The Religious. In this sense technology turns human life into just another product that can be created in a laboratory and which has no intrinsic or deeper religious value or meaning.
As John Paul II stated during a visit to America, "A free and virtuous society, which America aspires to be, must reject practices that devalue and violate human life at any stage from conception until natural death" Dart, , p.
This also refers to the religious view that human life is sacred from there moment of conception and that stem cell research should be prevented as it in fact destroys the fetus in order to obtain the stem cells, This view is reiterated from different perspectives by theologians from various faiths.
It will consider the current moral discourse on the issue of stem cells and at the same time look at the basics or the foundation of stem cells themselves. How these cells can be utilized to conduct studies in cloning will be dwelt upon as well. The pertinent issue on the floor of the U. Present national government regulations and policy documents tackle this issue basically via the limits on federal funding allocated to ESR Aylesworth, Department of Human Health Services is not permitted to spend any money on making human embryos for studies whereby the embryos will be damaged, thrown away, or intentionally be exposed to risks such as…… [Read More].
Stem Cell Research Define Stem. Unfortunately, these undifferentiated cells cannot be harvested or removed from an adult because an adult's cells have already matured. Once matured, cells can't be overwritten to become another type of cell. Therefore, the stem cells can still be rewritten or redirected so to speak to become whatever type of specialized cell needed in a human body.
In theory, stem cells would function as replacement parts for the body just like an automobile getting a new bumper after a fender bender. The really great news regarding this technology is that undifferentiated embryonic stem cells have been proven to proliferate indefinitely in controlled cultures. As the world grasps the concept of finite resources such as oil and gold, this type of undifferentiated cell has…… [Read More].
Genetic Engineering Is a Tool in the. Genetic Engineering is a tool in the hands of man to break the species barriers to create a more productive and controllable world. This is a delicately balanced issue and unless we exercise enough restraint and responsibility we may end up endangering ourselves and all other forms of life. Genetic Engineering is the science of gene manipulation.
Genetic information is specific to each and every organism in the world. Genetic Engineering is in effect the science that deals with the controlling of the expression of the individual genes within a cell. Today the advancements in science have made possible the selective study of the individual segments of the DNA of a particular species, to isolate them and to infuse them in the DNA of a totally different organism.
Genetic Engineering can be viewed as a breakthrough in the study of organisms that effectively disintegrates the distinctions that exists in the…… [Read More]. Peter Weyland's TED talk provides an intriguing perspective on the idea of a god and generates much controversy as a result of trying to change society's understanding of this concept. The power to create is indeed, an impressive feat, and it is only natural for humans to feel privileged because of coming to control this power.
Weyland's speech is referring to androids whom people are going to have difficulties differentiating from real humans in a few years time. When regarding matters solely from the perspective provided by Ridley Scott's motion picture Prometheus, it would only be safe to say that the power to create provides one with the ability to relate to him or herself as being a god.
While Darwinism seems to be a powerful idea, many people prefer to think of their background as having had a creator. One can almost say that people are 'programmed'…… [Read More]. Stem Cell Offer Unparalleled Potential. Patients are instead at the mercy of their insurance companies for determining the extent of care they receive and where they receive it. Any patient who wants a procedure or a medication not covered by their plan and any patient whose insurance company denies coverage of certain procedures is forced to foot the bill themselves.
In most cases the bills are outlandish and only the very wealthy could afford to avail themselves of desired services. Global competition makes medical procedures and pharmaceutical interventions available for a wider range of people. The lower price tags on medications and the cheaper surgeries offered by doctors in foreign countries has encouraged patients to seek medical attention abroad rather than in the United States.
Because physicians in foreign countries are frequently well-trained, even trained in the United States, patients are becoming more open to medical tourism. Global competition has yet to affect American healthcare…… [Read More].
Editor From Cells to Souls -- and Beyond. Eerdmans Publishing Company, According to Michael Steel in the book edited Malcolm Jeeves entitled From Cells to Souls -- and Beyond, the most critical moral and ethical debate of our time is the relationship of the human being as a 'self' or 'soul' depending on one's preferred cultural, psychological or religious term for describing one's understanding of one's status as a human person and the implications of scientific development upon the conception of what is a person.
Bush Christian the Bush Administration's. With the production of Dolly, we also entered a vast technological frontier of possibilities. The cloned sheep "was born after nuclear transfer from a mammary gland cell, the first mammal to develop from a cell derived from adult tissue.
For researchers battling such diseases as Parkinson's, Alzheimer's and paralysis all around the world, such a possibility began to hint at countless opportunities…… [Read More]. Ethics in Health Care Today. Evangelium Vitae, encyclical letter on the value and the inviolability of Human Life What the Pope was referring to was the debate over the ethics of stem cell research, and cloning and to other related issues that deal with experimenting with human embryos and fetuses.
In fact, today, embryos can be created in a Petri dish, through in vitro fertilization, and these embryos are used for stem cell extraction and research. It is the use of these embryos that the Church objects vociferously to, because the Church feels that human life is not being allowed to reach its full potential through these methods. However, stem cells can be extracted from the umbilical cord of the mother soon after the child is born, or even from adults, and there is no objection to this, because there is no perceived loss of life.
The fear in legalizing such research is that abortion…… [Read More]. Biomedical Technology the Field of. The end result is that biomedical technology is an area of science and research that is of greater benefit to all of mankind, which helps to ease of suffering for human beings worldwide.
While many argue that certain advances in biomedical technology verge on the science fiction creation of some human clone cyborg hybrid, this is not an unusual reaction. Great change is always accompanied by fear. Stock has an interesting thought experiment that brings this point home: If hunter-gatherers imagined living in New York City, they would say that they could no longer be human in such a place, that this wouldn't be a human way of living Yet, today most of us look at this as not only a human way of life, but great improvement over hunting and gathering.
I think it will be the same way with the changes that occur as we begin to alter…… [Read More]. Human Genome Project May Be. Since the antigens are closely linked to race and ethnicity, it is much easier to find a biological match among people with similar ethnic and racial backgrounds than it is among any two randomly selected individuals. On the basis of tissue matching, organs from blacks will almost always go to blacks and organs from whites will almost always go to whites.
Blacks, however, have a much higher incidence of kidney failure than whites. But since whites significantly outnumber blacks in the American population, there are still large numbers of whites waiting for organs. There are so many, in fact, that nearly every white donor is matched to a white recipient. Blacks and other minorities must rely on a much smaller pool of kidneys.
The situation for potential black kidney transplant recipients is made even worse by the fact that blacks have a lower rate of cadaver organ donation than do…… [Read More].
Political Influence Over Stem Cell. Going back further, the same religious principals also inspired opposition to organ transplants and blood transfusions; before that, the Catholic Church strictly forbade any forensic scientific research, necessitating the need to dissect cadavers for medical education entirely in secret Levine, Just as the news media are partially at fault today for their failure to distinguish legitimate concerns from ludicrous fears in connection with the ongoing political debate over American healthcare, they are equally responsible for allowing unfounded fears of "human cloning" in connection with the beneficial uses of stem cell science.
Specifically, the main source of secular opposition to stem cell research is attributable to unnecessary fears of rampant misuse of human cloning technology to clone human beings.
While human cloning is hypothetically possible, no responsible scientific researcher would ever misuse current biomedical technology in that fashion. The complexities of cloning entire organisms have been well documented in animal…… [Read More]. Ethics of Stem Cell Research. The ban needs to be used to prevent the sale of embryos, use of cloning and the production of embryos for the sole purpose of research. Cures for debilitating diseases will hopefully result and healing is supposed to be the driving factor in medicine.
These stem cells can be produced in Petri dishes. It can be used to produce a cardiac muscle cell which can be administered to a heart patient to take care of his malfunctioning heart 3 Hennemann, n. The cloning process, which is actually the organification of iodide and thyroid homogenesis makes use of ThOX proteins and throperoxidase. The successful cloning of human hydrogen peroxide generating system opens new vistas in physiopathology and diagnosis of thyroid disease.
Below are some important elements to be remembered Ontario Consultants on religious tolerance, n. The main seed cell which will be used in the therapeutic cloning is just like a human life; it contains human DNA. This can come from either extraction or sometimes even scrapping of the inner side of the mouth The problematic area or the malfunctioning part of the human body, such as in this case the thyroid gland is generated from the main seed cell. The main seed cell can never be created on its own.
It contains the human DNA and is the most important and basic element. This will later be used for the cure of the thyroid. Sometimes the cloning experiment is an unsuccessful one.
There are many hurdles which the person doing the actual cloning should avoid, or failure of the whole the experiment will be un avoidable. The stem cells which will later cure the thyroid disease through therapeutic cloning should be isolated and stored in a laboratory. The stem cells can die if not kept under specific conditions. Human body consists of different types of cell. Therefore converting the previously stored stem cells in to specific tissue cells is a complex and difficult method that requires a lot of precaution and care.
These tissues will be transplanted into patients with thyroid. However it should be taken care that these tissues have been proven previously. This means that the stem cells forming these tissues have to be checked if they produce the desired result. Adult stem cells have limitations whereas embryonic stem cells are more flexible.
The problem is how to procure these embryonic stem cells and this is the area where the ethical question crops up. Therapeutic cloning of curing thyroid disease is still in its early stages. Sometimes the entire experiment fails because the human body rejects the tissue which was injected as it is sometimes mutated. Sometimes it also produces tumors. So, in order to have good therapeutic cloning results these problems have to be overcome.
If we are able to overcome these hurdles, people will be able to bring light into the life of thousands of diseased people. There are over fifty diseases which can be cured via this method. Works Cited Australian Academy of Science Retrieved February 15 from: How it is done; possible benefits.
Definition of Therapeutic cloning. Cellular Uptake of Thyroid Hormones. Past, Present, and the Exciting Future. Let us create the best one for you!
- Human cloning is separated into two major categories; reproductive cloning, which uses cloning technology to create a human embryo that will produce an entire human, and therapeutic, which adopt cloning into field of medical practices to find a cure for many diseases (Kass).
Human cloning essay - this is on the topic of cloning humans to use their body parts. You are asked if you agree with human cloning to use their body parts, and what reservations (concerns) you have.
Cloning essays / Will Cloning Have A Positive Or Negative Effect On Will Cloning have a Positive OR Negative Effect on Society?? The definition of a clone is an organism that has the same genetic information as another organism or organisms. Essays supporting human cloning published by the Human Cloning Foundation Note: The Human Cloning Foundation does not have the resources to check the factual accuracy of all the essays that it publishes. The reader must .
The idea of cloning humans has always stirred debate, raising moral and ethical issues. As research and experiments continue delve into the frontiers of technology and science, we inch closer to the possibility of cloning becoming a reality. In fact, it is unrealistic to assume it will never happen. Free Essay: Ethics of Human Cloning On February 23, Dolly the lamb was literally made. She is not the work of nature or nature's God but of man, and.