Specifically, we undertook a phased programme of research to study the cultural adaptation of three key health promotion areas — smoking cessation, physical activity and healthy eating — that are potentially applicable to African-, Chinese- and South Asian-origin populations. These groups represent the major ethnic minority groupings in the UK and the USA and feature prominently in the diverse populations of, for example, Canada, New Zealand and Australia discussed in Chapter 1.
To identify and summarise information on health promotion interventions for smoking cessation, physical activity and healthy eating that are of proven effectiveness for use in populations at large. To assess to what degree ethnic minority populations are considered within the evidence base for smoking cessation, physical activity and healthy eating health promotion interventions known to be effective in populations at large.
To identify health promotion interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity, and improving healthy eating that have been adapted to meet the needs of African-, Chinese- and South Asian-origin ethnic minority populations, describe the adaptation approaches used and assess the clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, feasibility, acceptability and equity of these adapted approaches.
To understand the rationale for and processes and experiences of adapting health promotion interventions for ethnic minority populations and to summarise lessons learned. To identify which adapted interventions are ready for implementation and establish which interventions require further research. The research questions arising from these objectives are discussed in subsequent chapters see Chapters 4 — 8.
Figure 2 outlines the relationship between the three phases, five objectives A—E and 10 questions and maps them onto the chapter s in which they are discussed in more detail. Relationship between project phases, objectives and questions. The original scientific rationale for this study is included in Appendix 2. The relatively few amendments made to aspects of work outlined in the original scientific rationale are detailed in Appendix 3.
These in the main reflected our responses to the unexpectedly large volume of literature identified. A mixed-methods approach was employed to collate and synthesise data from multiple sources. Our methods included a review of UK guidelines and international systematic reviews to identify evidence on health promotion interventions for the general population; a systematic review of interventions adapted for ethnic minority populations; qualitative interviews with researchers and health promoters developing, delivering and evaluating adapted interventions; and, finally, a realist synthesis of the results from each of the preceding components.
We provide below a brief overview of the methods used for orientation purposes; more detailed information is contained in subsequent chapters see Chapters 3 — 8. Figure 3 summarises the relationships linking the methods used in the study. Overview of study methods and the relationships linking the methods. User engagement was undertaken throughout our project through the inclusion of lay members on our Independent Project Steering Committee; in addition, we held two user conferences, one to launch the study and one to share and discuss our preliminary findings.
The details of our user engagement approach and conferences are found in Chapter 3. Our review of UK guidelines and international systematic reviews was designed to examine what health promotion interventions have proven effectiveness in the general population for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity and improving healthy eating.
Details of effectiveness for the general population were extracted from guidelines and systematic reviews and a summary framework of effective interventions was created for behaviour change in general and for each of the health promotion topics of interest see Chapter 4. These frameworks were further compared with the adapted interventions to identify where there was overlap and to identify research gaps in which promising evidence-based interventions for the general population have not yet been adapted for ethnic minority populations see Chapter 8.
This same body of literature was also searched to determine whether or not recommendations and interventions made by UK guidelines and international systematic reviews were equally applicable to ethnic minority populations see Chapter 5. We then conducted a systematic review of health promotion interventions to identify smoking cessation, physical activity and healthy eating interventions that have been adapted for African-, Chinese- and South Asian-origin populations.
From the included studies we identified the adaptation approaches utilised in these interventions see Chapter 6. The included studies were also assessed for clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in relation to health behaviour change and associated outcomes.
In parallel with the systematic review we carried out qualitative interviews with key researchers and health promoters who had been involved in developing, delivering and evaluating adapted health promotion interventions to supplement the systematic review of published literature. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted either by telephone or face-to-face and were recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were coded and thematically analysed to identify overarching themes see Chapter 7.
An objective approach is particularly important in science , and in decision-making processes which affect large numbers of people e. Scientific progress can be regarded as a three-way contest between rival theories and a stock of evidence held in common.
If rival interpretations are denied or if evidence is denied, then this impairs the possibility for rational debate and criticism, and consequently the growth of knowledge. On that ground, many scientists have proclaimed themselves in favour of freedom of thought and expression. If evidence is falsified as for example in conducting a control experiment knowledge is gained leading to the progress of an objective argument as the falsification resembles proof.
In decisions affecting large numbers of people such as in politics ignoring relevant evidence or alternative interpretations could lead to policies which, although perhaps well-intentioned, have the opposite effect of what was really intended.
Taking an "objective approach" may not always be relevant, particularly in cases where it is impossible to be objective either because the relevant facts and viewpoints necessary are lacking, or because it is the subjective opinion or response that happens to be important. Thus it is possible to take an "objective approach" inappropriately in situations which call for an expression of subjective thought or feeling.
Sometimes it is argued that an objective approach is impossible because people will naturally take a partisan, self-interested approach. That is, they will select out those views and facts which agree with their own cf. However this view fails to explain why, for example, people will do things which are not in their self-interest, based on what they believe to be an objective approach.
A scientist or politician may never be "neutral" they may have a vested interest in particular theories or policies but they might also take an objective approach in the sense of remaining open to alternative viewpoints and new evidence.
In a rational discourse, such an "open-minded" stance is important, especially because it may not be known in advance which facts and arguments are truly relevant to resolving an issue. A "closed" stance would foreclose discussion and debate, usually on the assumption that the relevant facts and arguments are already known and judged. Taking an objective approach often contrasts with arguments from authority , where it is argued that X is true because an authority Y says so.
Formulating research aim and objectives in an appropriate manner is one of the most important aspects of your thesis. This is because research aim and objectives determine the scope, depth and the overall direction of the research. Research question is the central question of the study that has to.
the National Research Initiative Program of USDA’s Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service in the fall of , we studied the conditions shaping the viability of farming in 15 metro-area counties in 14 states.
1. Goal or Aim of the Research. The primary aim of a Qualitative Research is to provide a complete, detailed description of the research topic. It is usually more exploratory in nature. Quantitative Research on the other hand focuses more in counting and classifying features and constructing statistical models and figures to explain what is observed. A research on training methods to find out the merits and demerits of numerous training methods applied in a firm with a view to increase the productivity of labor. A research on layout design aimed to minimize the material handling cost and increase the equipments utilization.
Objectives for the Research Methodology: Data Collection and Tips Gathering information, or what others may know as information mining, is a crucial part of any writing – essay, term, or research . The objective of research is to find answers to the questions by applying scientific procedures. In other words, the main aim of research research methodology is the way in which research problems are solved systematically. It is a science of studying how research is conducted scientifically. Under it, the researcher acquaints.