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Sample Argumentative Research Paper Outline

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❶For example, something like "George Washington was the first president of the United States," would not be a good thesis because it states a fact.

Another Argument Outline Template. Audience and how you plan to appeal to them: Explain the interest in this topic. What experiences have caused the writer to become interested careful using 1st person! Background Information, including history and context for problem: How you will appeal to Ethos: Refutation or Opposing Arguments Explain them, explain how and why there may be value in them, and disagree with the parts you believe to be invalid.

Evidence to support your claim, including appeal to logos , and pathos. Evidence must come from your sources, both primary and secondary: Reason 1 supporting your claim: Reason 2 supporting your claim: Reason 3 supporting your claim: Do you have a solution to the problem? This may or may not be applicable.

How will it work? By addressing the opposition you achieve the following goals: How do I accomplish this? Jot down several good reasons why you support that particular side of the argument.

Look at the reasons you provided and try to argue with yourself. Why would someone disagree with each of these points? Sometimes it's helpful to imagine that you're having a verbal argument with someone who disagrees with you. Think carefully about your audience ; try to understand their background, their strongest influences, and the way that their minds work. What parts of this issue will concern my opposing audience the most? Find the necessary facts, evidence, quotes from experts, etc.

Carefully organize your paper so that it moves smoothly from defending your own points to sections where you argue against the opposition. Sample Papers Student Sample: Cry Wolf with sources Student Sample: Therefore, it is important to make sure that you understand your assignment before you get started. As soon as your teacher assigns the paper, read the guidelines carefully and highlight anything that you do not understand.

Make sure that you understand how to cite your sources for the paper and how to use the documentation style your teacher prefers. It is better to ask and make sure that you understand than to do the assignment wrong and get a bad grade. Generate ideas for your argumentative essay. It is important to take time to explore your ideas before you choose a topic and start your paper. Take some time to explore your ideas and get some things down on paper by using an invention activity. Invention activities like listing, freewriting, clustering, and questioning can help you to develop ideas for your argumentative essay.

Expand those lists by adding more ideas or by using another prewriting activity. When you are done, review what you have written and highlight or underline the most useful information. Repeat the freewriting exercise using the passages you underlined as a starting point.

You can repeat this exercise multiple times to continue to refine and develop your ideas. Then draw three or more lines extending from the circle. Write a corresponding idea at the end of each of these lines.

Continue developing your cluster until you have explored as many connections as you can. Respond to each question in as much detail as you can. Think about how you will incorporate ethos, pathos, and logos. An argumentative essay requires you to demonstrate your understanding of three basic rhetorical concepts: You will need to be aware of these concepts as you write your paper and demonstrate your knowledge of them through your writing.

To convince your readers that your argument is valid, you need to convince them that you are trustworthy. You can accomplish this goal by presenting yourself as confident, fair, and approachable. You can achieve these objectives by avoiding wishy-washy statements, presenting information in an unbiased manner, and identifying common ground between yourself and your readers including the ones that may disagree with you.

Pathos refers to your use of emotional appeals. Emotional appeals have a place in argumentative writing, but overuse of them may lead a reader to reject your argument. Make sure that your use of emotional appeals is minimal and appropriate.

You can also invoke pathos by providing relevant examples that evoke an emotional response in your readers and using figurative language such as metaphors to help your readers understand and sympathize with your point of view.

Logos refers to your use of logic, reasoning, and sequencing. This means setting up your argument in a way that uses logic to achieve your desired endpoint or reaction, often through inductive and deductive reasoning. Develop your tentative thesis. Once you have developed your ideas for your argumentative essay, you should be ready to write a tentative thesis statement.

In other words, the tentative thesis statement is not set in stone. Effective thesis statements let readers know what the main focus of a paper is going to be. For an argumentative essay, the thesis should state an arguable claim.

A thesis should not be more than one sentence in length. The end of the first paragraph is the traditional place to provide your thesis in an academic essay. Make sure your thesis is arguable. Your thesis should express a clear position on your topic that can be supported using evidence from your sources.

Do not state facts or matters of taste. For example, something like "George Washington was the first president of the United States," would not be a good thesis because it states a fact. Likewise, "Die Hard is a great movie," would not work because it expresses a matter of taste. There are many possibilities for a counter argument, which makes this topic arguable.

Make sure your thesis provides enough detail. In addition to having a thesis that is arguable, you should also include some details about why you hold the position. In other words, you should avoid simply saying that something is bad and should be changed and provide a bit of detail about why it is bad and should be changed. Who would benefit if it was changed? Providing this detail gives readers a good sense of what the rest of the paper will discuss.

Your thesis should tell your reader why your argument matters, and for whom. Develop a rough outline based on your research notes. Writing an outline before you begin drafting your argumentative essay will help you to organize your information more effectively. You can make your outline as detailed or as scant as you want. Just keep in mind that the more detail you include in your outline, the more material you will have ready to put into your paper.

For example, part 1 might be your introduction, which could then be broken into three sub-parts: Generate key terms and phrases to help you with your research. As you develop key terms, keep your topic and your position in mind. For example, some relevant key terms and phrases for a paper on lowering the drinking age to 18 might be: Find appropriate secondary sources for your argumentative essay. In order to find support for your argument, you will need to gather a variety of sources.

See your assignment guidelines or ask your instructor if you have questions about what types of sources are appropriate for your assignment. Books, articles from scholarly journals, magazine articles, newspaper articles, and trustworthy websites are some sources that you might consider using.

These databases provide you with free access to articles and other resources that you cannot usually gain access to by using a search engine. Evaluate your sources to determine their credibility. Use trustworthy sources only in your argumentative essay, otherwise you will damage your own credibility as an author. There are several things that you will need to consider in order to determine whether or not a source is trustworthy.

The credentials should indicate something about why this person is qualified to speak as an authority on the subject. For example, an article about a medical condition will be more trustworthy if the author is a medical doctor.

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Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements. Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for your impenetrable argument.

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Types of Papers: Argument/Argumentative While some teachers consider persuasive papers and argument papers to be basically the same thing, it’s usually safe to assume that an argument paper presents a stronger claim—possibly to a more resistant audience. Use our sample 'Sample Argumentative Research Paper Outline.' Read it or download it for free. Free help from wikiHow.

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Basic 5-Paragraph (Argument) Essay Outline: This outline also serves for other essays such as research papers, or the basic 5-paragraph essay. Highlight-and-print outline to fill in. Another Argument Essay Outline: This outline asks questions that help you critically think about your topic. Highlight-and-print outline to fill in.